January 28, 2020

Why in the discussion?

Following the ‘Act East Policy’ in India, there have been high level talks and agreements between India and Singapore in recent days, which has further strengthened the mutual relations between the two countries.

key points

  • In addition to bilateral negotiations between India and Singapore, more than 20 arrangements have been made for joint exercises and other bilateral cooperation, which are implemented every year. In November 2015, these relations were made into a strategic partnership between the two countries.
  • In June 2018, India and Singapore, other than Shangri La Dialogue, signed a number of agreements for mutual cooperation in many areas other than defense and strategic partnership.
  • The most important agreement in this was the implementation agreement between the Indian Navy and Singapore Navy, which relates to the maintenance and logistics of mutual coordination, naval ships, submarines and naval aircraft.
  • With the implementation of this agreement, both countries are sharing their naval resources with logistics and services through each other.
  • Through agreement, India and Singapore have agreed to joint exercises regularly with their associate countries in their shared maritime area.

Science and technology

Army fire power gets booster shot

Why in the discussion?

Recently, the US M-777 Ultralight Howitzer gun and South Korean K-9 Vajra cannon were officially included in the Indian Army fleet. In addition, a gun tower was also included in the army.

key points

  • For the last time in the early 1980s, an artillery system – Bofors gun was purchased from Sweden by the army. Since then no progress has been made in the purchase of new guns.
  • In the presence of Defense Minister Nirmala Sitharaman and Army Chief General Bipin Rawat, both types of three artillery were included in the army. Overall the Army will get 10 K-9 guns this year.
  • In addition to this, the third device to be included in the army is the common gun tower, which is 6×6 vehicle with cross-country capacity. Manufactured by Indian company Ashok Leyland, this vehicle is suited for carrying medium-range guns.
  • In April 2017, Indian Engineering Group Larsen and Toubro (L & T) and South Korean Hanwa Techwin signed a contract to make K-9 Vaj-T cannon.
  • After the extensive tests, this cannon was recently included by the army. The deal is worth Rs 4,500 crore for 100 guns.
  • The K-9 Vajra-T is 155 mm, 52-caliber self-propelled guns, which have a maximum capacity of 40 km. Its fire control system has been optimized for desert situations.
  • Under this agreement, the first 10 guns will be imported from South Korea and will be manufactured by L & T in the rest of India. The first regiment will be deployed till July 2019 and all the 100 artillery will be received by 2020.

Howitzer deal with the US

  • India signed a $ 737 million deal with the US in November 2016, under the Foreign Military Sales Program for 145 M-777 Ultralight Howitz Guns.
  • Twenty-five guns will be imported under this agreement and the rest will be made in India in partnership with Mahindra Group. The distribution of these will be completed by the middle of 2020.
  • The M-777 is a 155 mm, 39 caliber manned cannon. Due to only being four tonnes weighing it can be done by helicopter.
  • According to Army’s Field Artillery Rationalization Scheme 1999, it is envisaged to include 3,000 different types of guns for 220 Artillery Regiments.

preliminary examination

Prelims Facts: November 10, 2018


Combined bilateral practice between India and Singapore’s Nassena-Simbex will be held from November 10 to 21, 2018 in Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal. It will be the 25th anniversary of the symbace.
    • Earlier, joint military exercises between the two countries were held in South China Sea in May 2017.
    • In order to make this opportunity historic, the navies of both countries have expanded the geographical boundaries of the practice area.
    • This time the frequency of joint naval exercises started from 1994 between India and Singapore will be the largest.
    • In this exercise, the representation of the Indian Navy is being destroyed by the destroyer vessel Ranveer, INS Satpura, INS Sahyadri, INS Kadmat, INS Kirch, INS Sumedha and INS Sukanya.
    • With the convoy of these destroyer ships, Sindhu Ghosh class submarine INS Shakti and INS Sindhu Kirti will also be included.
    • Naval exercises will also include marine patrol aircraft Dornier 228, P 81, MK 132 Hawk and UH3H and Chetak helicopters.
    • In the initial phase, it will be organized at the port level in Port Blair, capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
    • After this, the exercise will start in the Andaman Sea.
    • The second stage of the exercise at the port level will be held in Visakhapatnam.
    • The final phase of the exercise in the marine field will be organized in the Bay of Bengal.


  • The naval cooperation between India and Singapore started in 1994, when Singapore Naval ships started training with the Indian Navy.
  • Originally started as Anti Submarine Warfare, this cooperation has now become more widespread. In recent years, modern practice has also been included on various platforms.

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